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Monday, September 8, 2014

ENTEROVIRUS D68 ( EV-D68 ) FACTS: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

WHAT IS ENTEROVIRUS D68 (a.k.a. EV-D68)?

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is one of many non-polio enteroviruses. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections are thought to occur less commonly than infections with other enteroviruses. EV-D68 was first identified in California in 1962. Compared with other enteroviruses, EV-D68 has been rarely reported in the United States for the last 40 years

(THIS RAISES A RED-FLAG SINCE IT IS OFFICIALLY REPORTED AS "RARE" AND NOW AS OF 9/8/14, THERE ARE  OVER 1000+ CASES!)

CURRENT STATES REPORTING / CDC INVESTIGATING EV-D68 ILLNESSES (UPDATED 9/8/14):

1. ALABAMA
2. COLORADO
3. GEORGIA
4. ILLINOIS
5. IOWA
6. KANSAS
7. KENTUCKY
8. MICHIGAN
9. MISSOURI
10. OHIO
11. OKLAHOMA
12. UTAH

Symptoms

  • EV-D68 has been reported to cause mild to severe respiratory illness. However, the full spectrum of EV-D68 illness is not well-defined.
  • Most people who are infected with non-polio enteroviruses do not get sick, or they only have mild illness. Symptoms of mild illness may include:
    • fever
    • runny nose, sneezing, cough
    • skin rash
    • mouth blisters
    • body and muscle aches
    Some non-polio enterovirus infections can cause
    • viral conjunctivitis,
    • hand, foot, and mouth disease,
    • viral meningitis (infection of the covering of the spinal cord and/or brain).
    Less commonly, a person may develop:
    • myocarditis (infection of the heart)
    • pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart)
    • encephalitis (infection of the brain)
    • paralysis
    People who develop myocarditis may have heart failure and require long term care. Some people who develop encephalitis or paralysis may not fully recover.

Transmission

  • EV-D68 is not frequently identified, so it is less studied and the ways it spreads are not as well-understood as other enteroviruses. EV-D68 causes respiratory illness, and the virus can be found in respiratory secretions such as saliva, nasal mucus, or sputum. The virus likely spreads from person to person when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or touches contaminated surfaces.

Treatment

  • There is no specific treatment for EV-D68 infections.
    • Many infections will be mild and self-limited, requiring only treatment of the symptoms.
    • Some people with severe respiratory illness caused by EV-D68 may need to be hospitalized and receive intensive supportive therapy.
  • No antiviral medications are currently available for treating of EV-D68 infections.

Prevention

  • There are no vaccines for preventing EV-D68 infections.
  • You can help protect yourself from respiratory illnesses by following these steps:
    • Wash hands often with soap and water for 20 seconds, especially after changing diapers
    • Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands
    • Avoid kissing, hugging, and sharing cups or eating utensils with people who are sick
    • Disinfect frequently touched surfaces, such as toys and doorknobs, especially if someone is sick

Surveillance

  • U.S. healthcare professionals are not required to report known or suspected cases of EV-D68 infection to health departments because it is not a reportable disease in the United States. Also, CDC does not have a surveillance system that specifically collects information on EV-D68 infections.
  • No data is currently available regarding the overall burden of morbidity or mortality from EV-D68 in the United States. Any data CDC receives about EV-D68 infections or outbreaks are voluntarily provided by labs to CDC’s National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS). NESS collects limited data, focusing on circulating types of enteroviruses and parechoviruses.

Laboratory Testing

  • Many hospitals can test for enteroviruses, but they are probably not able to perform enterovirus typing. State health departments or CDC can be approached for typing.
  • CDC is working with state and local health departments and clinical and state laboratories to
    • enhance their capacity to identify and investigate outbreaks
    • perform diagnostic and molecular typing tests to improve detection of enteroviruses and enhance surveillance
INFORMATION SOURCE: CDC